Do mito ao fracasso: a psicologia bolsonarista – Israel Russo

Do mito ao fracasso: a psicologia bolsonarista – Israel Russo

As elites brasileiras se questionam a respeito da ascensão ao poder por parte de Jair Bolsonaro e como, ainda hoje, 20% da população continua apoiando o presidente. Da mesma forma que não será simples para os historiadores ordenar e sintetizar nossa história a partir de 2013, será um trabalho hercúleo dar sentido ao bolsonarismo.

Para começar, o primeiro passo necessário é entender a formação da massa que elegeu Bolsonaro em 2018. Certamente, o então deputado de baixo clero não criou ou cultivou esse aglomerado de indivíduos revoltados, mas os atraiu para seu projeto particular, como o flautista de Hamelin conduziu os ratos para o Rio Weser.

Entretanto, a multidão se formou em torno de uma pauta bem diferente dos interesses de Bolsonaro: o aumento de 20 centavos na passagem de ônibus. Evidentemente, foram inúmeros fatores — como uma década de corrupção petista, desemprego, inflação etc. — que provocaram a insatisfação dos brasileiros. A pauta central dos 20 centavos expôs que era necessário apenas um motivo intuitivo o suficiente para que as ruas se enchessem de manifestantes.

Os anos se arrastaram e, em 2016, as ruas ganharam um significado diferente: elas poderiam derrubar um presidente. A queda de Dilma Rousseff proporcionou um sentimento indescritível de poder às massas que, nesse momento, passaram a tomar forma de uma multidão psicológica, nos termos da teoria do polímata francês Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931), segundo a qual o indivíduo suprime seus dotes particulares para integrar uma coletividade.

Deste período até 2018, Bolsonaro conseguiu sequestrar uma parcela significativa dos brasileiros que vestiam verde e amarelo e lotavam as ruas das capitais. Isso é um processo natural. Tendo se formado uma coletividade — podendo agregar somente a mediocridade —, ela precisa de um líder, tal como Robespierre, que se tornou a cabeça da Revolução Francesa (perdida posteriormente).

Uma incógnita para nossos grandes pensadores ainda é: de quais dotes se reveste Bolsonaro para ter o prestígio de se apossar dessa multidão? Ora, como esse mito ainda não foi desmascarado para milhões de brasileiros? A resposta para as duas questões é a mesma. Mas não é concebível para boa parte dos intelectuais que um ser desprovido de raciocínio, como Bolsonaro, possa liderar uma parcela expressiva da população.

Há aqueles que tentam incumbir ao presidente uma inteligência oculta que ele não possui. Outros ainda ficam abismados pelo capitão não ter nenhuma das características “tradicionais” de um líder, como inteligência, virtude e retórica. Essas características “tradicionais” certamente foram abstraídas de algum devaneio teórico. Assim como Bolsonaro, muitos líderes não foram tão inteligentes como aparentam aos nossos olhos anacrônicos. Um deles possuía, sim, inteligência, mas era um homem de ação. Falo de Napoleão Bonaparte, segundo o qual “a melhor figura retórica é a repetição”.

A partir dessa frase icônica, podemos entender melhor como operam as massas. Na condição psicológica de multidão, os indivíduos — sejam sábios ou ignorantes — agem majoritariamente guiados pelos sentimentos, sobre os quais impera o inconsciente. Não se comunica com o inconsciente por meio de raciocínios, mas através de imagens. Por isso, todas as tentativas de lideranças políticas, intelectuais ou da imprensa de convencer as massas do erro são inúteis.

As palavras dos líderes de multidões evocam imagens que, por sua vez, atiçam os sentimentos no imaginário inconsciente do sujeito. O significado dessas imagens nada tem a ver com o sentido real das palavras que as evocam. “Mito” é um signo impregnado na mente bolsonarista, assim como tantos outros termos incessantemente repetidos nessa bolha de apoiadores, sem que haja correspondência com a realidade.

O covarde se torna corajoso, o corrupto veste o manto da honestidade e o boçal se transfigura em um grande estrategista. Como pudemos constatar, essa multidão desejava, de fato, uma aventura golpista no Sete de Setembro. Teriam seguido o presidente na empreitada sem recuar, mas seus anseios não foram atendidos.

Os dias do bolsonarismo estão contados. A militância — que se encontra acima da multidão e funciona como um “replicador de imagens” — está diuturnamente trabalhando para impedir o derretimento da popularidade do presidente. Os monitores digitais (como o IDP e MAP), assim como as pesquisas, apontam uma considerável queda na avaliação presidencial.

Nossa história pode ser análoga à correnteza de um rio: uma pedra atirada em suas águas irá provocar um efeito muito mais visível, porém temporário. Com a mesma fúria com que se alimentou de vaidades propagadas por Bolsonaro, a multidão irá considerar seu herói caído como um igual e se vingará por ter lhe conferido uma superioridade que não o pertence. O ciclo do mito ao fracasso é recorrente na história, principalmente quando o líder expõe suas falhas e não realiza o desejo das massas.

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