[Coluna] Sobre a metafísica aristotélica – Lucas P. Lima

[Coluna] Sobre a metafísica aristotélica – Lucas P. Lima

O que é “Metafísica”? Para obter uma resposta a essa pergunta, primeiro devemos entender os tipos de ciência e cada classe dela. Em primeiro lugar, para Aristóteles, existem três tipos de ciências: a teorética, a prática e a poiética. A poiética ocupa-se do saber responsável pela produção de determinados objetos para fins úteis ao homem — por exemplo, as engenharias. A prática busca o conhecimento para, através dele, obter a perfeição moral. Temos como exemplo a ética (no sentido aristotélico) e a política. E a teorética, que busca o saber em si mesmo. No entanto, a ciência teorética divide-se em mais três classes: a física, a matemática e a teologia.

A mais superior das ciências é a teorética e, das teoréticas, a de maior importância é a teologia — dado que ela trata do mais importante aspecto da realidade, segundo Aristóteles.

As quatro causas

Sabendo que a preocupação da metafísica é descobrir o princípio primeiro e as causas da realidade, devemos entender quais e quantas são essas causas, que segundo Aristóteles são quatro: causa formal (forma de determinado objeto/ser), causa material (matéria que constitui o objeto/ser), causa eficiente (o que faz algo vir a ser, exemplificando: seus pais são a causa eficiente que lhe trouxeram à vida) e a causa final (finalidade do ser/objeto, por exemplo: o objetivo da faca é cortar; o do cão é ser guardião ou latir). As duas primeiras causas explicam o que é o ser, as duas últimas explicam a transformação do ser.

Agora, o que é o ser? Ora, o ser é a substância. Mas o que é isso de substância, afinal?

No sentido impróprio, a substância é a matéria e o sínolo (junção de matéria e forma); mas, por excelência, o ser é a forma.

Vale ressaltar que matéria é potencialidade indeterminada, podendo tornar-se determinada se receber uma determinação por meio da forma (bronze). A forma é o constitutivo intrínseco da própria coisa (formato de um homem). E sínolo é a união de matéria e forma, como dito anteriormente (unificando o bronze e o formato de um homem, temos como resultado uma estátua).

Ato e potência

Segundo o princípio do movimento, tudo no cosmos está repleto de potência (mudança em alguma coisa distinta da coisa mudada ou nela enquanto outra). Um exemplo de potência ausente da coisa mudada são os pedreiros na construção de uma casa, na qual os materiais, através da potência de trabalho aplicada neles, vem a se tornar essa casa. Já um exemplo de potência enquanto outra, temos a medicina, a qual pode estar presente no paciente ainda que não enquanto paciente. Isto é, um paciente ao consumir um remédio, passa do estado “doente” ao estado “sadio”, afirmando que o princípio da mudança está presente no paciente, ainda que não seja ele próprio.

Existe também a impotência, que pode impedir a potencialidade de um determinado objeto/ser vir a efetivar-se. Na impotência, existe a possível (quando o contrário não é necessariamente falso) e a impossível (o contrário é necessariamente verídico).

Na impotência possível, tomemos como exemplo o experimento do gato de Schrödinger, na qual a chance do gato estar vivo ou morto no final da experiência é exatamente 50%, ou seja, a mesma. Caso o cientista abra a caixa e se depara com o gato vivo, isso não necessariamente significa que o contrário é falso, ou seja, impotência possível.

Já no caso da impotência impossível, temos como exemplo o lado de um quadrado, que não pode ser em hipótese alguma maior que a diagonal. Nesse caso, se temos um quadrado com 2cm de lado, ao considerar os seus tamanhos para encontrar a diagonal, temos o seguinte cálculo: D2: 2^2 + 2^2 = D2: 4+4 = D: 8 = D2: ✓8 = D2: 2,82. O tamanho da diagonal é 2,82, e isso vale para todos os quadrados. Portanto, sendo impossível que a diagonal de um quadrado seja menor que os lados, então o contrário é necessariamente impossível; logo, impotência impossível.

Já o ato, é o princípio de onde a potência se originou; por exemplo: a árvore é o ato da potência da semente. Contudo, mesmo que a germinação da semente e o crescimento da árvore requeira tempo para que se mostrasse enquanto tal num determinado momento, a árvore já se encontra em potência na semente. Para não cairmos em regressão infinita, devemos assumir que existe um ato puro destituído de qualquer potência, um primeiro motor. Assumindo uma justificativa aristotélica: “Do exposto anteriormente, fica evidente que o necessário é também o atual e que o atual é anterior ao potencial na medida em que o eterno é anterior.” (Organon, p. 111).

Por Lucas P. Lima

Bibliografia

ARISTÓTELES. Metafísica. Tradução do português, textos adicionais e notas de Edson BINI. São Paulo: Edipro, 2012.

ARISTÓTELES.  Organon. Tradução do português, textos adicionais e notas de Edson BINI. São Paulo: Edipro, 3. Ed., 2016.

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