[Coluna] Que mal faz um pouco de diversão? O papel do entretenimento na experiência estética – Ed N. Braga

[Coluna] Que mal faz um pouco de diversão? O papel do entretenimento na experiência estética – Ed N. Braga

No início de outubro, o consagrado diretor hollywoodiano Martin Scorcese (1942-) iniciou uma improvável polêmica em relação aos filmes da Marvel, comparando-os a atrações de um “parque de diversões” em contraste com aquilo que denominou inicialmente de “cinema narrativo”. De repente falar sobre a estrutura mercadológica da indústria cinematográfica, e sobre a função do cinema de franquia dentro dela, alcançou a dignidade de uma pauta mundial, com vários membros do “mundo da arte” oferecendo seus respectivos palpites. Em uma coluna recente no The New York Times [1], Scorcese esclareceu de forma aparentemente definitiva sua posição; e mais do que nunca parece que, no fundo, dizer se os filmes da Marvel são ou não cinema é a menos controversa de todas as questões levantadas. Sem cair no relativismo de uma mera opinião, penso que a filosofia da arte pode dar uma contribuição especial, se não para resolver a controvérsia, ao menos para esclarecê-la.

Para começar, se entendermos o conceito de “cinema” de forma estritamente descritiva, de fato não faz sentido a afirmação de que os filmes do Universo Cinematográfico Marvel (UCM) não são cinema; afinal, eles possuem vários dos elementos que caracterizam casos paradigmáticos de obras da sétima arte. Porém, Scorcese se utilizou do conceito de cinema de forma valorativa: para ele, a questão não é a mera diferenciação descritiva entre o que é cinema e o que é “entretenimento audiovisual”, mas a de reconhecer a dimensão de valor que pode ser atribuída a um e ao outro.

Falar de arte dessa maneira não é ilegítimo da parte do diretor. Muitas vezes nos utilizamos da ideia de arte como uma forma de atribuir um valor a mais a determinados objetos. Se ao perguntar “Isto é arte?” recebo uma resposta positiva, a resposta funciona como um convite para que eu me dedique a uma observação mais profunda das propriedades do objeto em questão, pelo fato de se compreenderem como possuintes de um valor intrínseco. Mas entender o cinema dentro de uma dimensão de valor implica deslocar nossa polêmica para a questão do entretenimento. Que papel o cinema de franquia ocupa dentro da nossa experiência cinematográfica? E como o entretenimento entra nesse processo?

Vamos partir de uma definição simples de entretenimento, um processo no qual nos divertimos ao entrar em contato com algum objeto ou acontecimento. Alguns filósofos acreditaram (e, penso, com razão) que os processos de industrialização e massificação da arte levaram a uma supervalorização do entretenimento enquanto um elemento primordial da experiência estética, que, com isso, passa do status de uma experiência de apreciação e contemplação a uma experiência de consumo.

Em seu artigo A ontologia da arte de massa, publicado em 1997, o filósofo britânico Noell Carroll (1947-) definiu, entre os elementos constituintes da arte massificada, o dela ser “intencionalmente criada para conduzir, em suas escolhas estruturais (por exemplo, suas formas narrativas, simbolismo, afeto intencionado e até mesmo seu conteúdo), às escolhas que prometem acessibilidade com o mínimo de esforço e praticamente no primeiro contato, para o maior número possível de um público relativamente sem instrução prévia.” Scorcese ecoa a mesma concepção em seu texto: “Os filmes [do UCM] são criados para satisfazer um conjunto específico de demandas, e formatados como variações de um número finito de temas. (…) É essa a natureza das franquias modernas de filmes: mercadologicamente pesquisadas, testadas pelo público, examinadas, modeladas, reexaminadas e remodeladas até que estejam prontas para o consumo.”

Com as análises de Carroll e Scorcese em mente, devemos atentar agora para a noção peculiar, presente em boa parte da história da estética e especialmente no caso paradigmático de Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), de que a experiência de apreciação do objeto de interesse estético está intimamente associada ao prazer. Porém, não devemos pensar que, na experiência estética, o interesse pelo objeto se dá por conta de sua utilidade em fornecer qualquer tipo de prazer. Em sua Crítica do Juízo (1790), Kant denomina o prazer presente na apreciação estética de “prazer desinteressado”: um prazer a meio caminho entre o desejo e o intelecto, decorrente da razão e da liberdade humanas e fora de uma dimensão de utilidade e instrumentalidade.

Ao aplicarmos esse insight kantiano ao contexto de nossas experiências, percebemos que, quando uma obra de arte (ou qualquer objeto de apreciação estética) é tomada como um meio, para a obtenção de algum tipo de sentimento, e não como um fim em si mesma, a dimensão contemplativa e apreciativa típica da experiência estética se perde, e resta-nos um processo psicológico de manipulação afetiva. Consequentemente, o juízo estético (ocorrente quando julgamos ser alguma coisa “bela”, “feia”, “exótica” ou “maravilhosa”) cai em uma heteronomia; em outras palavras, não é mais compreendido corretamente a partir do objeto ao qual se reporta, mas a partir dos sentimentos experienciados pelo sujeito. A experiência artística torna-se um processo empobrecido de consumismo sentimentalista, e as propriedades semânticas da obra tornam-se supérfluas ao serem postas em segundo lugar para com o sucesso ou fracasso dela em nos divertir.

Entretanto, a hegemonia atual de uma experiência consumista da arte não nos deve fazer condenar o entretenimento e sua importância legítima dentro da experiência estética, da forma que fizeram filósofos como R. G. Collingwood (1889-1943), que, na tentativa de condenar o sentimentalismo, acabaram deslegitimando o papel da diversão na apreciação artística. Não há nada de errado na diversão e no entretenimento em si mesmos. O erro está em transformar a arte em um meio para sua obtenção. Quando despimos nosso interesse pela arte de preocupações imediatas, instrumentais e utilitárias, nossa diversão surge em toda a sua legitimidade afetiva pertencente a nós enquanto seres dotados de razão. Na análise e no julgamento de boas obras de arte, também nos conectamos naturalmente com nossos desejos e emoções que, mediados por nossa razão, engrandecem e enriquecem nossa visão do mundo e de nós mesmos.

É justo dizer que há um traço de diversão na imensa maioria das experiências artísticas, desde as que envolvem as belas artes e a arte popular (quando contemplamos esculturas de Bernini e peças de Shakespeare ou ouvimos canções de Luiz Gonzaga) até aquelas que envolvem a arte massificada (quando lemos HQs, ouvimos álbuns de música pop ou assistimos filmes do UCM). Mas, além do perigo de rebaixarmos a arte a um meio para obtermos sentimentos ou diversão, há aquele que Scorcese aponta no caso específico do cinema massificado: “a eliminação gradual, mas contínua, do risco”. É o caso de um cinema que, por obter um enorme sucesso enquanto produto, acaba monopolizando o mercado artístico e acostumando o público a um processo de entretenimento formulaico que, apesar de divertir, oferece uma experiência narrativa pobre se comparada a de outros filmes que não parecem ter seu devido espaço na indústria.

Questões de mercado possuem uma dimensão própria complicadíssima que não tentarei analisar a fundo aqui. Não acredito que todo o cinema de franquia é medíocre, e nem que a dimensão comercial da arte é absolutamente deletéria e deve ser excluída. Scorcese, em sua tentativa legítima de defender o cinema de um processo de coletivização, faz uma defesa um tanto desajeitada da “visão unificadora do artista individual”, algo típico de concepções em que o papel quase profético do artista-gênio lança a obra numa dimensão de obscurantismo individualista, cuja maior expressão se encontra nos piores tipos de vanguarda no séc. XX (não todos os casos, obviamente), nos quais a arte torna-se subserviente ao choque, à subversão e ao sensacionalismo.

Mesmo assim, penso estar o diretor bastante correto ao afirmar que atualmente a massificação, de fato, impõe à arte uma “eliminação do risco” dentro do processo de criação, e que esse tipo de restrição é um perigo concreto para a criatividade, tão essencial por toda a história da produção artística. Obras de arte pouco criativas, subservientes à facilidade calculada de fórmulas de sucesso, não possuem outro destino senão o da irrelevância de produtos facilmente descartáveis e a de mecanismos de manipulação emocional, ambas culminando no esquecimento que obras melhores tratarão de remediar no futuro.

[1] https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/04/opinion/martin-scorsese-marvel.html

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