[Coluna] Comércio internacional e a dispersão do conhecimento – Guilherme Machado

[Coluna] Comércio internacional e a dispersão do conhecimento – Guilherme Machado

O comércio internacional tem muitos benefícios, sendo os mais observáveis e impactantes em países antes fechados e restritos, relacionando-se com um único fator geral: conhecimento.

A pesquisa é vasta nos chamados “Spillovers” – derrame/dispersão de conhecimento -,  gerados pela livre troca entre dois países, que aderidos à redução ou completa destruição de suas barreiras comerciais, usufruem de ganhos de produtividade advindos de seus ganhos de escala, dum aumento no “learn-by-doing” observável na mão de obra e de pressão competitiva que incentiva a inovação. Além disso, também logram acesso à fronteira tecnológica do mundo, permitindo o “catch-up” – ou em outras palavras, o alcance de países mais avançados tecnologicamente -, por agora terem conhecimento dessas novas tecnologias, o que pode ser aproveitado por meio do financiamento ou compra das pesquisas, assim como uma cópia propriamente dita delas.

Friedrich Hayek, em um de seus artigos mais conhecidos, intitulado “The Use of Knowledge in Society”, iria nos apresentar a ideia de que o conhecimento é algo disperso entre todos os agentes de um determinado lugar, e que a principal tarefa da economia não era a de tentar acumulá-lo inteiramente em uma única estrutura, ente ou instituição, mas sim de descobrir métodos pelos quais se possa usufruí-lo ao máximo. Em “The Meaning of Competition” e “Competition as a Discovery Process”, essa tese fica mais clara, quando a competição é descrita como um processo de descoberta de conhecimento, e que a atividade empresarial consiste em não menos do que um ou mais agentes detentores do conhecimento referente a uma dada particularidade para, existente um aparato econômico-institucional que assim lhes possibilite, agir visando seu lucro. Nesses conceitos, o problema da economia é um problema de coordenação do conhecimento disperso entre todos.

Não poderia ser diferente numa escala mundial. Os tigres asiáticos são uma clara evidência de “catch-up”, ou em termos “hayekianos”, de que um dado conhecimento – seja ele uma tecnologia nova ou simplesmente um novo método de se produzir -, outrora disperso pelo mundo, foi encontrado. Os agentes, tendo agora “contato” com ele, poderão utilizá-lo da melhor maneira possível: um processo de otimização e coordenação de planos contínuo.

No entanto, sem um aparato institucional que permita aos agentes a liberdade de agir e usufruir de um novo conhecimento produtivamente, essa descoberta torna-se obsoleta. Os japoneses da era Meiji talvez nunca teriam experimentado uma locomotiva, ou até mesmo o contato com capitais físicos (máquinas e ferramentas) mais produtivos, não fosse a invasão de seu território pelas tropas americanas e a consequente assinatura do Tratado de Kanagawa. Não que os fins justifiquem os meios – e que, para usufruir de uma qualidade de vida melhor, pessoas devam ser bombardeadas ou ameaçadas -, mas, sem instituições que lhe incentivem e possibilitem o uso ótimo por todos, de nada esse conhecimento disponível e disperso servirá.

Restam os grandes líderes e lobbystas, assim como os grandes grupos de trabalhadores e sindicatos que os apoiam, reconhecer que o preço das tarifas, das barreiras e da preservação de um status quo empresarial improdutivo custa muito a todos. É um trabalho de conscientização difícil, em que árduo é ter fé. Quem teria fé em políticos, não é mesmo? Mas devemos falar, lutar pela verdade, não importando quão difícil seja. A escuridão só tem espaço onde a luz desistiu de brilhar.

 

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