A Escola de Copenhague e a Teoria da Securitização

A Escola de Copenhague e a Teoria da Securitização

No que tange ao campo dos estudos de defesa e segurança internacional,tem-se no imaginário estabelecido os elementos tradicionais que são associados ao tema, como os confrontos bélicos entre Estados, as defesas do território e o investimento militar. Não obstante, tais elementos são extremamente importantes para a literatura especializada, mais precisamente para as vertentes mais tradicionais que buscam estudar o conflito e as questões de segurança a partir de certas temáticas objetivas e universais. 

Entretanto, o que é muita vezes pouco difundido no debate público é a importância dos debates existentes acerca da definição dos conceitos de segurança e as contribuições que teorias alternativas trazem ao debate, ampliando a temática e estabelecendo maior complexidade aos temas de segurança e defesa e a conexão que tais elementos possuem em relação às dimensões política, econômica e institucional. 

A Escola de Copenhague, fundada em 1985 a partir da criação do Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, com vistas a fomentar pesquisas voltadas à segurança internacional, estabelece-se como um marco precursor da inauguração de novos modos de se pensar as temáticas de segurança e defesa para além dos paradigmas tradicionalistas e de caráter predominantemente realista. Entretanto, é necessário fazer uma distinção teórica para aqueles que não estão situados no debate e apontar que mesmo se opondo a certas concepções clássicas do realismo tradicionalista, a Escola de Copenhague não se caracterizaria de maneira geral como uma opositora radical a esta tradição, posição que estaria associada às vertentes críticas.

Ao contrário disso, a Escola de Copenhague busca trazer à discussão certos aspectos de uma perspectiva construtivista, criando um diálogo com as abordagens tradicionais. Por Construtivismo, entende-se, nos termos de Adler, “a perspectiva segundo a qual o modo pelo qual o mundo material forma e é formado pela ação e interação humana depende de interpretações normativas e epistêmicas dinâmicas do mundo material”, em outras palavras, a forma como a realidade material e social se desenvolve e responde a determinados problemas se fundamenta em interpretações guiadas por ideias e percepções acerca da realidade, que são construídas no interior da sociedade e guiam as ações dos agentes, moldando suas visões de mundo e o sentido que delas decorrem. Como aponta Marina Guedes Duque no seu artigo O Papel da Síntese da Escola de Copenhague nos Estudos de Segurança Internacional, “o grupo de Copenhague realizou uma produtiva síntese tanto das vertentes tradicionalista e crítica de segurança internacional como das abordagens realista e construtivista de teoria das Relações Internacionais”. 

É estabelecida, portanto, como uma abordagem tida como abrangente, que não nega o papel das temáticas clássicas, mas que busca introduzir elementos críticos a partir de abordagens interdisciplinares em relação aos estudos de segurança, enfatizando o papel dos processos políticos, sociais e econômicos que se fazem presentes nesses processos. 

No que tange a sua principal contribuição teórica o conceito de securitização, apresenta-se como o mais relevante e original. Em suma, o conceito de securitização se caracteriza pela ideia de que as temáticas que são estabelecidas como objetos de segurança e ganham status de ameaça em determinado contexto social são, antes de tudo, construídos a partir de um processo de interpretação social acerca do problema e projetados através de uma agenda política que transforma tal questão em um problema de caráter securitizado. Este processo se caracteriza primeiro pela politização da questão, na qual a temática ganha status de relevância pública, em que o Estado deve se fazer presente e atuar na busca de resolver o problema através de políticas públicas, seguido pela acentuação do problema para uma etapa mais elevada em que a questão passa a ser vista como uma ameaça direta à ordem social e política e, portanto, à própria sobrevivência, recebendo o caráter de ameaça à segurança nacional e/ou internacional. 

Umas das consequências claras desse fenômeno é a utilização de mecanismos extraordinários e a justificação de adoção de medidas não convencionais e às vezes clandestinas como uma forma necessária para se lidar com a ameaça iminente, apontando a questão como prioritária, requerendo grande alocação de recursos e medidas emergenciais para a resolução do problema. É preciso, entretanto, fazer uma distinção entre um movimento de securitização e a securitização estabelecida. Sendo um processo, o fenômeno requer alguns procedimentos e etapas a serem guiadas para que seja perpetuado de maneira concreta.

Um dos pontos de maior relevância na construção do processo de securitização é o ato do discurso, ou ato de fala. Como aponta Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde em Security: a new framework for analysis, “o processo de securitização é o que em teoria da linguagem é chamado de ato de fala”. Isto é, o discurso e a atribuição de significado se tornam elementos cruciais na compreensão de uma ameaça e isso passa necessariamente pela recepção de uma audiência que aceita e adota esse discurso como legítimo, reconhecendo a ameaça e legitimando a securitização da mesma. De tal maneira, o processo de securitização se dá a partir de uma relação entre o agente que identifica a ameaça e aqueles que absorvem o discurso, sendo um fenômeno que se concretiza a partir de uma via de mão dupla e do compartilhamento intersubjetivo da interpretação acerca de determinado aspecto da realidade. 

Por consequência, compreende-se que, em última instância, as questões de segurança e defesa não são universalmente compreendidas e existentes de maneira fixa e objetiva na realidade, mas são construídas a partir de um contexto político e social e da interpretação intersubjetiva, movida por ideias e valores que buscam interpretar o mundo material. Dito isso, a compreensão da segurança e da defesa acaba por demandar necessariamente a compreensão das dimensões políticas, ideológicas, históricas e sociais que giram em torno de determinado fenômeno e como as agendas de segurança são impactadas por esses aspectos. 

Num contexto pós-guerra fria, globalizado e no qual as agendas políticas em torno da segurança internacional enfrentam novos desafios ou, como comumente chamadas, as “novas ameaças”, a compreensão da securitização e o uso de tal conceito como categoria teórica se torna relevante e útil no entendimento de diversos dilemas contemporâneos, o que leva a outra característica importante da Escola de Copenhague: a sua aproximação com a tradição europeia de estudos de segurança que, distinta da tradição norte-americana, tem uma abordagem voltada aos estudo da paz e da segurança internacional em detrimento dos estudos estratégicos e de caráter nacional predominante nos Estados Unidos da América, característica esta que se manifesta na importância do conceito de segurança regional, que enfatiza a ideia da construção de agendas de segurança voltadas para a cooperação internacional a partir das realidades regionais e geopolíticas que seriam responsáveis por delimitar demandas em comum.

 À medida que tais demandas estabelecem novos desafios e ganham contornos dos quais as abordagens tradicionais se demonstram insuficientes, tentar utilizar ferramentas mais abrangentes que dialoguem com perspectivas mais plurais acerca do problema se torna necessário, fazendo com que, mesmo em suas limitações, a Escola de Copenhague seja uma opção interessante para quem deseja se aprofundar em tais temáticas acerca da segurança internacional e dos estudos de paz no mundo contemporâneo. 

 

Referências

 

ADLER, Emanuel. O Construtivismo no Estudo das Relações Internacionais: 47. ed. São Paulo: Lua Nova, 1999. 

BUZAN, L.; WAEVER, O.; WILDE, J, D. Security: a new framework for analysis: 1. ed. USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers Inc, 1997.

 DUQUE, Marina Guedes. O Papel da Síntese da Escola de Copenhague nos Estudos de Segurança Internacional: 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Contexto Internacional, 2009. 

HUYSMAN, Jef. Revisiting Copenhagen: Or, On the Creative Development of a Security Studies Agenda in Europe: 4. ed. London: Europe Journal of International Relations, 1998.

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