A Imoralidade dos Donos da Impressora: “La Casa de Papel” e a Teoria da Moeda Austríaca – André Filipe

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“Mas isto que estamos fazendo não importa se são outros que o fazem. No ano de 2011, O Banco Central Europeu criou do nada 171 biliões de euros. Do nada! Igual ao que estamos fazendo, mas em escala maior. 185 biliões de euros em 2012. 145 biliões de euros em 2013. Você sabe para onde foi todo esse dinheiro? Para os bancos. Diretamente da fábrica para os mais ricos. Alguém disse que o Banco Central Europeu foi um ladrão?”. 

Como um soco no estômago, a inspetora Murillo sucumbiu a essa explicação do Professor. Provavelmente ela recordara a sua carreira de brilhante policial onde via tudo em termos de maus e bons, achando na sua inocência que existia alguma aura de moralidade que permeia o estado e seus governantes. Claro que tudo isso é nada mais do que ficção. 

“La Casa de Papel” foi uma produção ousada, um excelente exemplo de como se consegue bom conteúdo de entretenimento sem os milhões de Hollywood.  O enredo faz o espectador questionar – tal como a inspetora- quem são os maus e bons e assim se prender à trama. O Professor – o cérebro por detrás de todo o assalto – parece estar seguro ao afirmar que a diferença entre o ato dos atracadores que permanecem pouco mais de uma semana trancados na Casa Nacional da Moeda Espanhola imprimindo dinheiro e a existência do Banco Central, detentor do monopólio da moeda, é apenas a quantidade de dinheiro que se imprime. E o argumento do Professor é, economicamente falando, inatacável. A desenvolver abaixo.

 

A Teoria da Moeda da Escola Austríaca

Dinheiro… certamente que o leitor já parou para se questionar do porquê de um simples papel – tendo o nome de real, euro ou dólar – possui tanto valor. É a ele que perseguimos para aumentar nosso padrão de vida. Esse pedaço de papel imprimido e com caras de personalidades históricas é, no fundo, aquilo que nos permite adquirir os bens que almejamos. Ou em “economiquês”, aquilo que nos concede poder de compra. O dinheiro é nada mais do que um meio usado em trocas comerciais e que visou resolver um problema das sociedades economicamente primitivas: suponha que Alberto produz ovos e João produz mel. Alberto tem muitos ovos e nenhum mel, então ele prefere prescindir daquilo que tem abundância (ovos), ao passo que João – dono de uma boa dezena de colmeias – abre mão de um pouco do seu mel em troca de alguns ovos de Alberto. Isso é uma troca comercial direta. O que acontece é que em economias onde existem diferentes escolhas, necessidades e produções simultâneas (sobretudo a existência de diversos bens indivisíveis e a existência de necessidades coincidentes), certas mercadorias vão prevalecer como sendo mais comercializáveis e serão então usadas como meios gerais de troca: o dinheiro. Desde tabaco, sal, açúcar, grãos, conchas ou até mesmo anzóis, mas foram, sobretudo, a prata e o ouro que permaneceram ao longo dos séculos, e de forma espontânea no livre-mercado, como formas mais eficientes de dinheiro. Com a existência de dinheiro, é possível pagamento de salário de trabalhadores contratados, adquirir ou vender bens indivisíveis a troco de uma mercadoria divisível aceita por todos e com dimensões e pesos bem determinados

Em obras como “A origem do dinheiro” de Karl Menger ou “O que o governo fez com o nosso dinheiro?” de Murray Rothbard, os autores expõem a tese de que o bom dinheiro – como no caso dos materiais preciosos – sempre atendeu a alguns critérios: 

1) a escassez: bens altamente valorizados e ofertados em quantidade bastante mais baixa à sua procura; 

2) possuir uma flutuação menor do que a generalidade dos outros bens; 

3) possuir alta durabilidade; 

4) serem facilmente transportáveis (liquidez). Importa ressalvar – de novo – que o reconhecimento dessas comodities como dinheiro resultou de um processo espontâneo, sem intervenção ou controle estatal da moeda. E foi assim durante séculos.

 

A imoralidade da impressora

Certamente que coisas como roubo nos incomodam bastante. Nada mais frustrante do que batalhar para conseguir um determinado bem para ser tomado por outrem de forma totalmente covarde e inescrupulosa. De igual maneira, coisas como fraude são tão ou mais condenáveis: usar a influência e o poder para enganar ou criar esquemas que prejudicam o próximo são tão ou mais detestáveis do que roubo. Dessa forma, o Professor imita um plano perfeito já existente por outro tipo de criminosos que possuem a tremenda vantagem de não serem vistos como tal, apesar de executarem ações semelhantes as da gangue.

Nas economias modernas o dinheiro passou a ser controlado pelo governo através da impressão do papel-moeda. O governo determina a quantidade de dinheiro que circula na economia e proíbe que outro tipo de moeda que não tenha sido cunhada por ele seja usada. Isso – como vamos ver a seguir – entregou aos governos modernos um poder quase ilimitado. Não por acaso o financiamento e aumento da despesa pública dispararam, bem como escândalos de corrupção bilionários. Essa é a consequência nefasta dessa imposição. 

Notas são pedaços de papel que possuem valor apenas porque governos a hipervalorizam sobre as demais. Ao imprimir dinheiro em cédulas sem qualquer limitação, governos criaram no imaginário popular a ideia de que era possível resolver os problemas da pobreza. Intuitivamente parece genial: mais dinheiro, significaria mais poder de compra dos pobres e o fim da miséria. Contudo, essa é uma forma de roubo sob a forma de imposto de uma maneira perversa. Como já foi exposto, o dinheiro funciona como uma mercadoria que obedece à famosa lei de oferta e demanda. Observemos a seguinte equação representando a Teoria Quantitativa da moeda:

P= m . v / y

Onde :

P= nível geral de preços

m= meios de pagamento (base monetária)

v= frequência média de gasto de uma unidade financeira (velocidade)

y= produto real (bens)

Sendo o dinheiro uma mercadoria, o que acontece quando se aumenta a sua oferta no mercado sem que exista um aumento da demanda (aumentamos m, sendo que v e y permanecem constantes)? Teremos um aumento de p, ou seja, do índice geral de preços! A famosa inflação. Inflação essa que vai tornar os pobres cada vez mais pobres, pois sem o aumento real da economia (y) 10 unidades monetárias vão comprar bem menos do que aquilo que compravam antes dessa injeção de dinheiro. Simplesmente, o governo imprimiu papel que é nada mais que um novo imposto criado de forma perversa para os mais pobres enquanto que o governo e as corporações por ele auxiliadas conseguem, diretamente da fábrica, esse dinheiro antes dos efeitos inflacionários. Como o Professor eloquentemente explicou. Ressaltando que no caso do padrão–ouro os efeitos da inflação eram quase inexistentes, uma vez que o próprio livre mercado se adaptava naturalmente a uma situação de escassez do metal precioso através da oferta-demanda.

A obrigação coercitiva que governos impõem aos cidadãos sob forma de imposto abusivo (na modalidade de financiamento de despesa pública gigantesca ou através da inflação causada pela política monetária monopolista), está, claro, conectada à existência de reservas fracionárias. A reserva fracionária é uma lei que permite aos bancos se financiarem como uma bola de neve. 

Suponha o leitor que José possui uma produção de dinheiro que ele “empresta” a uma comunidade. O contrato é muito simples: José empresta o dinheiro para a comunidade e em trocas eles devolvem a mesma quantidade mais um juro. Supondo que José possui 100 onças de ouro, ele cobra 1 onça extra por cada 5 onças emprestadas. Assim, se ele emprestar 10 ele deve ser ressarcido em 12 dentro de um tempo limite.  O estimado leitor certamente acharia no mínimo estranho José se comprometer a entregar 200 onças sendo que possui apenas metade dessas. Mas José é engenhoso e criou um papel que diz que ele tem essas 200 e, assim, sem qualquer pudor ele cobrará um juro de um dinheiro imaginário que por algum motivo mais bizarro as pessoas a quem ele empresta acreditam que ele de fato o possui. Fraude, alegar-se-á com razão. Contudo, no sistema bancário internacional a fraude tem o já referido nome de reserva fracionária.

Na reserva fracionária, bancos são obrigados a reterem apenas uma fração da reserva em depósitos (geralmente entre 10 por cento – como nos EUA – e 40 por cento, dependendo do país). Assim, se o banco A tiver 1000 unidades de dinheiro e ele só é obrigado a guardar 100, irá repassar 900 a outros bancos. Por sua vez, o banco B que recebeu 900, só necessita reter 90 unidades. Um outro banco C, irá receber 810 e reter 81. Ou seja, as 1000 unidades de reserva que existiam já viraram 1000+900+810. Criaram-se 1710 unidades de dinheiro do nada. Com todos os efeitos da inflação já expostos e com a legitimidade “legal” total. De fazer inveja a qualquer grande mente criminosa, sobretudo se, novamente, pensarmos que esse dinheiro é usado por um grupo seleto de pessoas!

 

A Tragédia do Euro

 

Dentro da literatura contemporânea, um dos maiores nomes sobre reserva fracionária é o jovem economista Phillip Bagus. Seu best–seller “A Tragédia do Euro” é leitura obrigatória para um melhor entendimento sobre a história e propósito da criação do Banco Central Europeu citado no seriado. Fazendo um resgate histórico a respeito das visões contrastantes na União Europeia (uma mais liberal–clássica defendendo políticas de livre–mercado e autonomia nacional e outra mais socialista pretendendo a criação de um grande Estado-Providência europeu), Bagus argumenta que a criação de um Banco Central Europeu era fundamental para que os defensores da centralização da União levassem o seu projeto adiante. 

Um dos grandes travões a isso era a pujança da economia alemã pós-guerra, que tinha uma política monetária independente do poder político, com a prática de taxas de juro altas e que não imprimia dinheiro para patrocinar despesa estatal.

Surgiu então uma forte corrente entre políticos franceses que viam na força do Marco Alemão uma forte barreira aos seus projetos monetários expansionistas uma vez que o Franco iria se desvalorizar ainda mais face à moeda alemã. Depois de muita pressão, o Euro foi introduzido e mostrou ser uma moeda mais fraca (com muita pressão também de setores industriais e bancos que iriam finalmente poder usar uma moeda desvalorizada).

Assim, o Euro representa na prática aquilo que os austríacos haviam previsto: um banco central que se conluia com o poder político vai beneficiar apenas uma pequena franja da sociedade: os donos da impressora e os amigos dos donos da impressora. De uma só porrada, os centralizadores conseguiram derrubar o marco e impedir o crescimento de moedas de economias emergentes, mantendo todos sobre o pesado jugo do juro do BCE.

Conclusão: Perspetivas Futuras

 

O objetivo deste artigo não é certamente convocar um assalto milionário com sequestros de dias ou uma guerra contra o sistema, como o feito dos anti-heróis do seriado. Contudo, urge refletir e pensarmos sobre alguns pontos. É cada vez mais importante nos dias que correm onde existe tanto extremismo à direita e à esquerda termos a noção daquilo que defendemos. E é fundamental existir uma “resistência” intelectual ao menos contra dogmas plenamente estabelecidos, que não são inocentes e possuem consequências nefastas sobretudo para as massas mais frágeis que tais políticas alegam tanto defender. Os donos da impressora são uma organização imoral com poderes que nunca deveriam ter. 

Aqui foi exposto o caso do Euro e do Banco Central Europeu, mas todos os países que adotam esse esquema fraudulento de financiamento público estão sujeitos aos efeitos colaterais dessa política danosa. E a conta sempre chega para o lado mais fraco.

 E não é nada barato.

Este post tem 2.308 comentários

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