Fé, Ceticismo e Poder em Michael Oakeshott – Victor Oliveira

Fé, Ceticismo e Poder em Michael Oakeshott – Victor Oliveira

A resenha a seguir é uma participação especial de Victor Oliveira, estudante de Relações Internacionais na Universidade Candido Mendes.


É extremamente comum no debate público a discussão acerca de conceitos como liberdade, democracia, direito, segurança e afins. Tais princípios são utilizados para evocar e sustentar os mais distintos argumentos dos agentes da esfera política, porém é provável que, na maioria dos casos, o que se está a discutir acaba por confundir mais do que elucidar. Ao evocar a liberdade de um lado, o outro a renega e diz evocá-la no minuto seguinte através de um versão reinterpretada, o mesmo se repete para a igualdade, a justiça, a ordem, e assim por diante. Uma grande confusão toma conta das percepções e mais parece que não há uma mesma linguagem a ser empregada. É a partir dessa reflexão que Michael Joseph Oakeshott, filósofo britânico e um dos mais originais pensadores conservadores do século XX, começa a estruturar, em seu livro A Política da Fé e a Política do Ceticismo, lançado no Brasil pela É Realizações, o que ele prefere designar como uma mera hipótese reflexiva acerca da história da política moderna.

Para Oakeshott, essa confusão linguística pode ser caracterizado a partir de duas categorias: ambivalência e ambiguidade. Em suma, a confusão abstrata diretamente ligada a um fenômeno prático mais complexo que leva a dois estilos de atuação no mundo. Argumenta o autor que a linguagem política é perceptivamente marcada por uma divisão singular que faz com que termos ganhem significados distintos, assumindo um caráter ambíguo. Esse fenômeno estaria ligado à noção de uma prática política ambivalente, isto é, que se desenvolve a partir de dois métodos e percepções diferentes da realidade. A tese de Oakeshott é justamente que essa distinção se daria através daquilo que ele chama de política da fé e política do ceticismo. Construindo seu pensamento, o filósofo nos diz que a história da política moderna pode ser, em parte, marcada por uma espécie de distinção dualista entre esses dois estilos de se fazer política. Esses estilos não são meros constructos teóricos, por mais que possam também se manifestar através de tal roupagem, também não são duas ideologias, nem são exclusivos de determinados partidos, movimentos, países e etc. O que Oakeshott elabora nem é, como pode confundir alguns, uma espécie de distinção entre esquerda e direita, ao contrário, até mesmo termos como estes estariam sujeitos a ambivalência desses estilos. Essas duas facetas são, antes de tudo, disposições que norteiam a maneira com a qual a política moderna europeia se constitui desde o século XV, como delimita Oakeshott.

Por mais antagônicos que sejam, esses dois estilos não podem ser definidos como formas alternativas, nem são fruto um do outro. Ao mesmo tempo que possuem independência, estão ligados em sua origem e se relacionam de uma maneira paradoxal, pois em tempo que são extremos distintos, são também complementares. A política da fé se caracteriza principalmente como uma política da perfeição, sua ação tem no telos, na finalidade, o seu ponto basilar. Esse estilo de política se constitui como fé não porque é religiosa, mas porque se alimenta de uma fé que está para além da percepção religiosa transcendente, uma fé concebida na imanência. Essa imanência da atividade da política da fé é elemento principal para identificá-la, pois mesmo quando ela se manifesta a partir de um ímpeto religioso, como exemplifica Oakeshott ao se tratar dos puritanos revolucionários ingleses, o seu objeto de prática é a administração do poder terreno e o objetivo é a redenção na terra. A política da imortalidade, como também nomeia Oakeshott, enxerga, portanto, que essa redenção histórica é possível, em suma porque a natureza humana assim o permite devido a uma noção da capacidade humana elevada através de uma atribuição de confiança exacerbada na potencialidade da razão.

Aos leitores mais atentos talvez venha surgir o contraponto de que a ideia de busca por perfeição por maior adesão que possa ter tido em certos momentos não é, principalmente no momento atual, algo procurado. A utopia de fato conduziu homens e projetos políticos, mas nem sempre foi um fenômeno predominante. Oakeshott, prevendo tal objeção, responde a isso de duas formas: primeiro, como enfatizado no centro de sua tese, nenhum dos dois estilos de políticas são ou foram propriamente hegemônicos ao longo da história da política moderna e nunca sequer chegaram a encarnar seus extremos teóricos. Isso devido o fato de que a relação existente é ambivalente e essa característica pressupõe que mesmo havendo a fé, o ceticismo também esteve presente e como uma simbiose eles acabam se moldando. É claro que momentos distintos levaram a tendência política para a predominância de um estilo sobre o outro, contudo eles nunca estiveram sozinhos, até porque se assim fosse a própria complexidade ambígua da política moderna europeia já não seria existente. Com isso, a fé não é apenas a sua disposição levada às últimas consequências. Em segundo lugar, Oakeshott aponta, também, que a fé e a noção de perfeição não se apresentam apenas na manifestação da política como busca por uma utopia absoluta, mas na própria noção de aperfeiçoamento contínuo e, principalmente, linear. O progresso pretendido e, acima de tudo, delimitado a um caminho estreito é uma manifestação do estilo da fé e, por mais que não carregue uma pretensiosidade esclarecida de se chegar a uma utopia estabelecida, ainda sim se alimenta de um raciocínio perfeccionista, no qual se levado às últimas consequências denota um caráter de salvação utópica, mesmo que não se tenha mente como exatamente essa salvação se concretizará.

Por outro lado o ceticismo se colocará no extremo oposto do que apresenta a fé. Para a política cética, a perfeição, antes de tudo, não é tida como possível. Uma noção bastante pessimista ou, no mínimo, mais humilde em relação a capacidade humana e, principalmente, da pretensiosidade racionalista, acaba por dar ao ceticismo a tônica de seu estilo. De tal maneira, a política cética não enxerga na atividade de governar a busca por um aperfeiçoamento contínuo e linear, menos ainda a pretensão de se chegar em um estado de salvação terrena. O cético enxerga o governo como uma ferramenta de manutenção de uma ordem superficial que objetiva nada mais do que estabelecer limites formais de convivência. Sua atitude, além de limitada, será formal e irá focar em pontuais ajustes que possam ser necessários para o mantimento desta ordem. Diferente da fé, o ceticismo é constituído de uma maior tolerância à pluralidade, no sentido de que para o cético não há um só caminho que leva a um resultado premeditado. O cético permite, portanto, a manifestação de variadas formas de se conceber a prática política na busca por solucionar eventuais problemáticas.

Em suma, mesmo estando de lados extremamente opostos, a política da fé a política do ceticismo possuem o mesmo progenitor: o aumento de poder que passou a ser concentrado na figura do Estado moderno a partir do século XV. Tanto a fé quanto o ceticismo não estão necessariamente presentes apenas na conjuntura moderna. Como aponta Oakeshott, a política da fé pode ter sido praticada em certos ambientes fora desse escopo histórico tal como a política do ceticismo e, inclusive, ele demonstra o quanto o ceticismo recebe a influência da tradição medieval de se lidar com a maneira de governar. Entretanto, é somente na europa moderna que fé e ceticismo se cruzam e se tornam elementos basilares da atividade política alimentando uma relação ambígua de administração do poder. Esse elemento característico que faz com que fé e ceticismo surjam como fontes da atividade política é justamente o crescimento singular da concentração de poder que o Estado moderno tal como concebido historicamente passou a obter. Por assim dizer, é como se ambos os estilos fossem maneiras distintas de responder a esse fenômeno.

Sem disfarçar muito, Oakeshott demonstra maior desprezo pela política da fé e um maior apreço pelo ceticismo. Ele também aponta que a concentração de poder foi um prato cheio para que a fé ganhasse expansão, não porque foi ela que produziu tal concentração, mas porque tamanho poder permitia conceber a fé de maneira mais concreta. Ora, se a fé enxerga que a humanidade pode chegar a um nível de aperfeiçoamento maior, ou até mesmo a perfeição, possuindo um poder de dimensão minuciosa (isto é, que se faz presente em cada detalhe das atividades humanas) esse objetivo pode ser alcançado e, de tal maneira, a fé ganha a sua força. O ceticismo, entretanto, não é tão distinto em sua origem, mesmo Oakeshott não delimitando de forma tão precisa a raiz histórica do ceticismo, tal como faz com a fé, ele demonstra que o estilo cético também se alimenta da grande expansão do poder que a modernidade passou a comportar, porém, diferente da fé que vê o poder com entusiasmo, o ceticismo reage a ele com temor.

Ao apontar a base dualista da política moderna europeia, Oakeshott demonstra uma preocupação singular: sua análise se volta à compreensão dos males que cada extremo em seu estado puro pode acarretar e nas mais variadas proporções. A nêmesis, como ele denomina, se encontra não apenas na política de fé que é seu objeto de maior crítica, mas também em seu extremo oposto, o ceticismo. Avalia Oakeshott que ambos os estilos, quando passam a dominar a atividade governamental de forma cada vez mais a se distanciar de seu extremo oposto, acabam se deparando com obstáculos próprios da própria expressão pura de suas respectivas posturas. A fé, como aponta o autor, é de maneira clara uma política contraproducente, em suma devido a sua pretensiosidade exacerbada na busca de dominar todos os traços das relações humanas. Para seu empreendimento, a fé depende dessa expansão de poder e mais ainda necessita que a esse poder seja depositado confiança e acima de tudo devoção. Entretanto, se uma política da fé consiste na busca constante por um aperfeiçoamento contínuo, mergulhar na fé política é nunca estar satisfeito, de tal maneira, acaba se manifestando um ciclo paradoxal no qual a fé não consegue satisfazer as expectativas que provocou em seus súditos pelo simples fato de que sua essência é a insatisfação. Para Oakeshott, a política da fé está necessariamente fadada a esse destino, de uma forma que, quanto mais ela alimenta a si mesma, mais ela se aproxima de sua nêmesis.

O ceticismo, por outro lado, não estaria sujeito a uma autodepreciação intrínseca, mas a uma limitação que levaria a sua ruína. Sendo a política do ceticismo uma manifestação da própria inibição em relação a tamanho poder, o cético não estaria disposto, portanto, a usar de todas as ferramentas disponíveis para a prática da atividade política. Esta postura, que é tida como uma expressão de virtude para Oakeshott, acaba por limitar a atividade cética e fazer com que ela não se adeque a determinadas situações em que o exercício mais desmedido ou no mínimo mais entusiasmado do poder seja requerido. A nêmesis do ceticismo seria então o quietismo político, um imobilismo que faz com que a atividade cética seja abandonada por uma incapacidade de responder a anseios que a própria atividade política dos tempos modernos acaba por demandar. Enquanto a fé peca pelo seu excesso de vaidade, o ceticismo é corroído pela sua “humildade cínica”.

A partir dessa dinâmica existente entre fé e ceticismo, sabendo que ambas representam extremos que por si só não só são insuficientes mas tendem à deterioração, Oakeshott se preocupa em fechar sua reflexão pensando em um modo de se lidar com essa característica da política moderna. Sua resposta não é a busca da simplicidade, pelo contrário, demonstra como toda a ambiguidade da política moderna é fruto justamente de uma política complexa e a destruição disso levaria a escolha arbitrária a um estilo de política que não daria conta devido à própria natureza da política moderna de dar um norte à atividade de governar. Dito isso, é justo enfatizar como, mesmo preferindo o ceticismo, Oakeshott não enxerga na sua aplicação contínua uma maneira de se lidar com tal problema, ao contrário disso ele apela à figura do estivador de Halifax como aquele que se direciona ao objetivo de equilibrar as regras do jogo. Para Oakeshott a atividade política é como uma embarcação sem rumo, mas que continua andando, e que estar nessa embarcação é tentar sobreviver às tempestades buscando manter a embarcação de pé. O estivador é aquele que exerce o papel justamente de equilibrar o barco, e esse equilíbrio se dá a medida em que fé e ceticismo transcendem o papel de extremos opostos e passam a se complementar de uma maneira que o ceticismo aniquila os delírios da fé e a fé salva o ceticismo de seu imobilismo insuficiente.

A Política da Fé e a Política do Ceticismo é uma obra que, além de expressar parte elementar do pensamento Oakeshottiano, fornecendo sofisticados elementos teóricos para se analisar a o caráter da história política moderna, nos faz refletir acerca da importância de buscar o equilíbrio e a moderação na atividade política. Moderação esta que não se resume a uma política do centrismo, pois como aponta o autor às vezes até mesmo esses supostos centrismos se tornam vozes contra a moderação, mas que apela a uma política pluralista que enxerga na atividade de governar a virtude de uma complexidade muitas das vezes desprezadas pelos profetas do absoluto.

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