A teoria de Kant da propriedade é uma forma de Positivismo Jurídico? – Victor Franca

A teoria de Kant da propriedade é uma forma de Positivismo Jurídico? – Victor Franca

“Portanto, somente uma vontade que obriga a cada qual e que é, por conseguinte, coletivamente universal (comum) e detentora de poder, pode oferecer a cada um aquela segurança. Mas o estado submetido a uma legislação externa universal (isto é, Pública) acompanhada de poder é o estado civil. SOMENTE NO ESTADO CIVIL, POIS, PODEM EXISTIR UM MEU E UM SEU EXTERIORES” – (Metafísica dos Costumes, 2013, p.61,).

Deparando-se com o artigo deste site que versa sobre a apropriação original em Immanuel Kant [1], presente no primeiro capítulo da sua doutrina do Direito Privado [2], o leitor menos atento pode vir a indagar se o prussiano não acaba por ser, afinal, um mero legalista ao propor que um título peremptório de propriedade só seria possível sob a existência de um poder civil público (um Estado) instituído.

No entanto, tendo em vista a integridade do Jusracionalismo crítico do sábio de Königsberg, faz-se necessário distanciá-lo categoricamente de um suposto (e reprovável) Juspositivismo, intuito maior deste artigo.

Breves resumos do Direito Positivo e do Direito Natural

O Direito Positivo é o direito posto, concretizado. É aquele com eficácia geral, válido em um dado ordenamento jurídico real (na medida em que existam mecanismos que o façam valer). Pode estar codificado ou não, tal como pode ser de origem legislativa ou consuetudinária.

O Direito Natural, entretanto, seria um corpo de princípios teóricos da justiça ou de normas de natureza moral que existiriam INDEPENDENTEMENTE de sua validade em algum ordenamento jurídico positivo. Já pressupondo a posição decisionista em Meta-Ética, na qual é afastada qualquer hipótese de ceticismo quanto à veracidade ou validade objetiva dos valores morais, aqueles seriam comandos apodíticos, universais e atemporais.

Vê-se, na breve exposição acima, que o Direito Natural e o Direito Positivo não são, entre si, termos antagônicos. O primeiro, na verdade, sempre quer ganhar eficácia positiva (é ilógico supor algo diverso).

Porém, notável é a divergência (ou até antagonismo) entre o Jusnaturalismo e a escola que convém-se chamar Juspositivismo.  O Positivismo jurídico, que não é uma corrente perfeitamente uniforme (muito menos o é o Jusnaturalismo), só admite a primeira forma de Direito, a positiva, como existente ou possível (se configurando como empirista nesse aspecto [3]).

Em casos como o de Hans Kelsen (1881-1973), é adotada a posição de não-cognitivismo em Meta-Ética, por vezes denominada ceticismo moral, discorrida pelo austríaco no capítulo de sua Teoria Pura do Direito cujo cerne é o ataque aos valores “absolutos” tanto nos campos que se pretendam, quanto científicos, quanto na própria moral [4]. Aqui, há evidente antagonismo e oposição ao Direito Natural e às escolas morais.

Com a breve e limitada exposição, já podemos fazer uma primeira distinção elementar entre a teoria jurídica de Kant e o (posterior) positivismo jurídico. O “decisionismo moral” do criticista é evidente quando ele próprio propõe que existam princípios a priori do direito e da justiça. É também evidente quando sugere, na segunda Crítica, que a vontade pode ser determinada pela razão pura (prática), constituindo, consequentemente, Leis Práticas (denominadas morais). [5]

Em contrapartida, o austríaco (Kelsen) não admite a existência de verdades objetivas nos campos da axiologia, deontologia e moral. O jurista foi um exímio refutador de teorias jusnaturalistas, levantando diversas críticas e análises rigorosas acerca das mais variadas escolas. Para ele, o Direito não é nada além de um meio de regulação do uso da força [6].

  • É essencial relembrar que demonstrações de falhas ou inconsistências em teorias do Direito Natural não se configuram como refutação cabal do mesmo enquanto ideia. Ora, mesmo que não seja tomada de forma dogmática (como o fazem os austro-libertários com o seu absolutismo de propriedade privada), uma corrente ético-jurídica universalista (seja naturalista seja racionalista) não poderia, por definição, ser derrubada por um procedimento evidentemente indutivo. Aos positivistas, resta o desafio de fundamentar um teorema da impossibilidade da existência de leis morais apodíticas; tal teorema, entretanto, ainda não nos foi apresentado.

Metodologicamente, seria um absurdo supor que o filósofo da Deontologia, e da filosofia Transcendental, pudesse ser encaixado na corrente que adotou expressamente, nos primórdios, o método empírico-descritivo, tal como nas Ciências Naturais.

Abaixo, exemplos notáveis acerca da subordinação, na filosofia política kantiana, do Direito Positivo a princípios metafísicos da justiça, assim como o reconhecimento da existência simultânea e complementar das duas formas de direito. Por fim, sua defesa política não é de um Estado legislativo ilimitado, mas do clássico Estado liberal de Direito [7]:

Dos direitos enquanto doutrinas sistemáticas: DIREITO NATURAL, que só se baseia em princípios a priori; DIREITO POSITIVO (estatutário), que procede da vontade de um legislador.” (Metafísica dos Costumes, 2013, p.43).

O jurisconsulto precisa tomar da doutrina do Direito Natural (ius naturae) os princípios imutáveis de toda legislação positiva”. (Página 35, MDC)”.

Conclusão geral da Apropriação Original kantiana (à nossa ambição)

“Em um estado de natureza (que é, para Kant, uma ideia, não um tempo passado), ninguém é obrigado a abster-se de invadir o que outro possui se o outro não lhe dá nenhuma garantia igual de que ele irá obedecer à mesma restrição em relação a ele. O que aconteceria nesse estado seria deixar tudo à mercê da justiça do mais forte – a violência” [8].

Ou seja, a Autoridade Civil, contraposta ao estado de natureza (no qual há simplesmente ausência de justiça), não é de maneira alguma a fundamentação do Direito (como no caso da liberdade, o único direito inato [sui juris] do homem, e da propriedade privada), que continua a ser a Razão. Kant não seria, portanto, sequer um legalista no sentido estrito.

Os direitos existem (provisoriamente) no estado de natureza e são pensados no campo racional. O Estado Civil, por conseguinte, apenas os assegura sob uma condição pública e erga omnes. Tal instituição não os cria; mas os garante [9].

Notas:

1: https://neoiluminismo.com////////2018/06/13/davi-miranda-a-apropriacao-original-em-kant/

2: Metafísica dos Costumes, Editora Vozes, página 51.

3: “A eficácia, enquanto verificadora da produção dos efeitos da norma, tem relação com o modo como a sociedade a observa, sendo denominada de eficácia social. Assim, ela é observada quando encontra na realidade condições adequadas para produzir seus efeitos” – Ferraz Júnior, Tércio Sampaio (A validade das normas jurídicas, 2013, p.14).

Das observações acima, já se pode concluir que a eficácia, quando relativa ao direito positivo, considera elementos meramente fáticos, jamais formais (no sentido de apoditicidade). Ora, se apenas essa forma de direito é objeto de estudo e, em última instância, de admissão dos positivistas jurídicos, então vejo como bastante apropriada a minha classificação desses juristas como “empiricistas” (NO ASPECTO EM QUESTÃO).

4: Teoria Pura do Direito, Martins Fontes, 1999 p.45 (“Da Relatividade do Valor Moral”).

5: Crítica da Razão Prática, Editora Vozes, 2016.

6: Para maior compreensão, é recomendada a leitura de um clássico do pensamento jurídico feito justamente à luz da Teoria Pura kelseniana: Teoria do Ordenamento Jurídico, Edipro, 2017, p.71 – Norberto Bobbio.

7: https://neoiluminismo.com////////2018/03/02/guilherme-cintra-o-que-e-o-estado-de-direito-a-visao-liberal/

8: Novamente o brilhante artigo:

9: Por um lado, austrolibertários defendem éticas nas quais o Direito e a aquisição de propriedade são pensados [racionalmente] e garantidos legitimamente de forma anterior ao Estado, através de uma apropriação unilateral; já os minarquistas defendem que esse Direito é apenas pensado [racionalmente] antes do Estado, mas é garantido legitimamente somente na instituição deste, já que um ato de apropriação legítima pressupõe necessariamente essa relação pública entre os indivíduos” – Apropriação Original em Kant, Neoiluminismo.com

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