A conciliação necessária entre as tradições Old Whig e Racionalista do Liberalismo – Victor Franca

A conciliação necessária entre as tradições Old Whig e Racionalista do Liberalismo – Victor Franca

“São comumente chamados de ‘Liberais’ os herdeiros da Revolução Gloriosa, tal como se intitulam Conservadores aqueles que reagiram contra a Revolução na França…” – João Pereira Coutinho.

O ensaísta, no decurso da palestra, opta por datar de grandes eventos históricos a consolidação de duas das terminologias políticas mais essenciais do Ocidente. A primeira é, decerto, a mais valiosa à nossa avaliação.

O Liberalismo Clássico é uma rica doutrina política e jusfilosófica que, erguendo o princípio do governo limitado, defende as liberdades individuais e a igualdade estritamente formal entre os homens como princípios morais e institucionais últimos. Entretanto, as fundamentações e as maneiras pelas quais se busca defender as ideias da liberdade diferem entre as várias tradições políticas. O intuito do artigo em questão é promover, ou ao menos iniciar, uma conciliação entre correntes liberais distintas, mas de imensurável valia a esse movimento.

Direito Natural e Liberalismo

A tradição do direito natural, ou do jusnaturalismo racionalista, versa sobre a existência, ao lado ou acima do direito positivo, de normas jurídicas (de natureza moral) que são válidas independentemente de pertencerem a algum ordenamento jurídico positivo. Essas seriam princípios imutáveis, universais e apodíticos da justiça e do dever. Poder-se-ia dizer que, entre essas várias escolas, é possível encontrar inúmeras divergências quanto ao conteúdo material de tais leis e à revelação racional da mesma. Deixemos tais diferenças (provisoriamente) de lado.

Segundo a mesma tradição, que se estende de Locke a Kant[1], o governo civil, a fim de ser moralmente justificado ou de não cair em uma contradição prática, tem de estar conforme aos comandos dos princípios éticos e metafísicos outrora deduzidos. O Estado liberal de direito, portanto, jamais deveria ser confundido com alguma forma de positivismo jurídico ou ser sinônimo de legalismos. As decisões políticas, tal como a atividade do legislador, deveriam ser lastreadas em um corpo teórico de imperativos morais rígidos e bem fundamentados.

Os direitos negativos da liberdade inata e da propriedade privada (para muitos, os dois programas centrais do liberalismo clássico) não estariam sujeitos ao arbítrio subjetivo de alguém ou à vontade de um legislador, mas seriam, a priori, justificados de forma racional.

Da tradição Old Whig

F.A. Hayek (1899-1992) denomina de liberalismo clássico aquele cujo berço reside na Grã-Bretanha e o ápice, nos Estados Unidos da América (2011, pp. 530-531).

Ora, é notória a proximidade entre o Liberalismo Whig, inglês, e o próprio conservadorismo britânico, “chefiado” por Edmund Burke (curiosamente, um membro do Partido Whig durante quase toda a sua vida). A doutrina social proposta por Hayek no século passado, especialmente em The Road to Serfdoom, The Constitution of Liberty e Law, Legislation and Liberty, convida a um eminente regresso ao movimento político que liderou a Revolução de 1648.

Diferente da linha romântica, insurgente e rousseauniana do liberalismo francês, os Whigs não acreditavam que a razão poderia construir a realidade que os cercava (o que fora a raiz do racionalismo construtivista), como sugeria o radical Thomas Paine (1737-1809), e não tinham aversão às tradições que emergiram organicamente da sociedade, aos moldes dos jacobinos franceses. Eram partidários moderados da liberdade, acreditando que essa tivera emergido tão naturalmente quanto os demais preceitos axiológicos e deontológicos das comunidades.

Essa ideia de que existe uma suposta seleção natural evolucionária, da qual decorreram as instituições civis defendidas por Burke e os conservadores, foi a semente para que Hayek (1952), posteriormente, formulasse o conceito de ordem espontânea que lhe é tão caro.

Aqui não é uma lei pensada pela razão humana que estabelece o groundwork moral das relações intersubjetivas ou de todos os direitos da humanidade, mas sim um processo impessoal, disperso e evolucionário de decisões e transmissões de conhecimentos. As instituições mais sólidas e justas não seriam produtos da mente humana, ao menos sob a forma individualizada e restrita, mas procederiam de forma descentralizada e, à luz do “Burkeanismo“, em reverência às tradições locais e coisas sagradas, que se justificam justamente por sobreviverem ao que o ilustre Russell Kirk (1918-1994) chama de “testes do tempo”.

Estabelecendo um elo entre Burke, Hayek e… Kant

É fato que, se tomada de forma absolutista e dogmática, qualquer escola jusnaturalista ou jusracionalista pode prover, mesmo no caso da primeira, repúdio às tradições políticas de um povo ou a mais categórica reprovação a toda forma de Estado, caso ambos não sigam à risca os seus comandos éticos mais abstratos. “Radicais metafísicos”, filhos do mais moribundo iluminismo, como Robespierre e Thomas Paine, podem instituir barbáries terrenas, enquanto, sob preceitos racionalistas, prometem uma paz perpétua imanente.

Entretanto, se provada a existência de alguma lei moral[2], intuito maior da filosofia prática de Immanuel Kant, é um dever de cada qual obedecer aos ditames objetivos desse sistema ético. Um conceito demárquico[3], inclusive, só torna um Estado substancialmente limitado se os direitos fundamentais por ele defendidos não se originarem de decisões discricionárias, mas apenas se obtiverem uma fundamentação metafísica e apodítica, o que jamais ocorre em hipóteses de não-cognitivismo e relativismo moral4.

O dilema aqui é evidente. Há pontos pertinentes, necessários e corretos em ambas as correntes do Liberalismo citadas (no caso do filósofo irlandês, até mesmo do Conservadorismo). Porém, como é possível defender, simultaneamente, a tradição Old whig e algum sistema ético universal e válido objetivamente? É possível ser, nas relações públicas e jurídicas, ético e não suplantar os mecanismos espontâneos de uma sociedade?

Um direito natural, seja compreendido como um corpo teórico de princípios deontológicos, seja entendido como um título moral de coerção, somente pode levar a uma conclusão prática revolucionária e fervorosa?

A solução para essa antinomia, em um primeiro momento, apenas pode ser um critério de ponderação. Ou melhor, moderação.

O Estado de Direito, naturalmente, pressupõe completa legalidade, mas isso não é o bastante: se uma lei desse ao governo poder ilimitado para agir como bem entendesse, todas as suas ações seriam legais, mas certamente não estariam dentro dos requisitos de supremacia da lei. O Estado de Direito, portanto, é algo mais que constitucionalismo: ele exige que todas as leis estejam em conformidade com certos princípios. (HAYEK, The Constitution of Liberty, 2011, cap. XIV, p.310)

A passagem de Hayek sugere que um governo civil, aos moldes liberais clássicos, deva pressupor completa legalidade e unidade jurídica, mas tampouco deva se restringir a essas. Os “princípios” norteadores e limitadores aos quais as leis hão de se conformar são, indubitavelmente, os direitos inatos da personalidade. Assim, podemos dar o primeiro passo a uma conciliação.

Em um conflito hierárquico de bens jurídicos, há de prevalecer aquele de maior atribuição social ou de superior valor moral. Qualitativamente, a liberdade sobrepõe a tradição. A última deve se adequar à primeira. Com efeito, podemos indagar apenas acerca da funcionalidade da última, tendo em vista a sua utilidade.

Sua utilidade, todavia, é a própria implementação dos direitos do homem na prática social. Qualquer transição coletiva de um estado de execução de uma atividade ao de adesão à prática diversa, que é exigência mínima para que haja um salto entre o estado de natureza, no qual os direitos naturais não podem simplesmente ser assegurados, para um estado civil, demanda acolhimento e fusão com os elementos comunitários que instigam toda ação abrangente, i.e., a cultura e a tradição.

Cultura e Tradição são um conjunto de signos e valores que servem como uma bússola a todo indivíduo inserido em um corpo social cuja gênese lhe fora muito anterior e trazem o ônus de que toda decisão tenha de levar em conta fatores temporais e holísticos (preexistentes, concomitantes ou supervenientes).

A sociedade é, de fato, um contrato. Contratos subordinados a objetos de interesse meramente ocasional podem ser dissolvidos à vontade  — mas o Estado não deve ser considerado como nada melhor do que um acordo de parceria num negócio de pimenta e café, algodão ou tabaco, ou algum outro de tais interesses inferiores, a ser assumido por um lucro pouco duradouro e a ser dissolvido ao gosto das partes. Deve ser encarado com outra reverência, porque não se trata de uma parceria em coisas subservientes apenas à existência animal bruta de uma natureza temporária e perecível. É uma parceria em toda ciência, uma parceria em toda arte, uma parceria em cada virtude e em toda perfeição. Como os fins de uma tal parceria não podem ser obtidos em muitas gerações, ele se torna uma parceria não apenas entre aqueles que estão vivendo, mas entre aqueles que estão vivendo, aqueles que estão mortos e aqueles que irão nascer. (BURKE, Reflexões sobre a Revolução na França, 2014, p. 115)

Por fim, conclui-se que a solução para a antinomia pode ser, em um primeiro momento, justamente a eliminação da mesma, como uma mudança de perspectiva. Cultura e tradição não são termos antagônicos ao direito natural, enquanto subordinados e inferiores a esse último, mas são, na verdade, peças-chave à efetividade real do mesmo.

Pensada racionalmente, a lei universal não tem de estabelecer dicotomia com as convenções, mas os sujeitos hão de fazer uso destas a fim de que aquela deixe de ser apenas um valor moral correto objetivamente e se torne, organicamente, um valor social praticado culturalmente.

Notas:

¹ faz-se necessário ressaltar que existem, sim, diferenças cruciais entre as Jusfilosofias de Jon Locke e Immanuel Kant. Locke é um empirista, sua Teoria da apropriação original tem como cerne o labor despojado sobre o objeto, sua ideia de estado de natureza é de que este é um dado histórico (mesmo que não datado) e seu Contrato Social é, em última instância, voluntarista. Em contrapartida, Immanuel Kant tem um groundwork epistemológico criticista, vê o Direito Público como necessário à formação de um título peremptório de propriedade privada e tem uma perspectiva puramente formal do Contrato Social.

² que deve ser distinguida tanto das Leis da natureza física quanto das Leis estatutárias/positivas. Aqui, é a pura determinação da vontade pela faculdade da razão.

³ Sobre a Demarquia em Hayek: https://neoiluminismo.com////////2018/02/15/demarquia-em-hayek-consideracoes-importantes/ s

deve-se lembrar que os juspositivistas, como Hans Kelsen (1881-1973), acreditam que apenas a forma positiva de direito é possível ou existente, isto é, consideram apenas o Direito posto com eficácia geral e efetivamente concretizado, jamais as “normas da razão” ou de natureza “moral” objetiva.

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