Paul Mueller – A Presunção de Liberdade de Adam Smith (tradução de Guilherme Cintra)

Paul Mueller – A Presunção de Liberdade de Adam Smith (tradução de Guilherme Cintra)

Texto originalmente publicado aqui, no dia 4 de janeiro de 2017.

O quanto Adam Smith valorizava a liberdade? Sociais-democratas, moderados, conservadores e libertários, todos querem reivindicar o santo patrono da economia como seu. Ele via a liberdade como apenas um valor entre tantos outros valores competidores? Ela era o único valor para julgar a política econômica? Ou Smith via a liberdade como o valor mais importante dentre alguns outros?

Eu tenho argumentado que Smith não pode ser caracterizado como um libertário que se baseava em direitos, para quem a liberdade é o único princípio orientador. Afinal, ele advogou muitas exceções que violam a liberdade. Ele também não se encaixa somente no campo da liberdade, porque sua filosofia moral exclui sistemas construídos sob um único ideal. Na última parte de A Teoria dos Sentimentos Morais, ele critica Epicuro e outros filósofos por simplificarem o mundo demais para que ele seja ajustado em um único princípio.

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Mas tampouco devemos pensar em Smith como tratando a liberdade como simplesmente um dentre muitos valores, como igualdade, utilidade, correção, ordem, prudência ou prosperidade. Smithianos de esquerda tendem a interpretar Smith assim, e dessa maneira diminuem a importância da liberdade. Eles não têm nada contra a liberdade, certamente, mas apenas enquanto esses outros valores estão sendo satisfeitos. Eles deixam escapar que a liberdade, e seu dever de justiça comutativa (“abster-se daquilo que é do outro”), é o tema mais importante e difundido nos trabalhos de Smith – tanto pelo número de vezes em que ele fala sobre liberdade e por sua eloquência em fazê-lo.

A terceira alternativa é que Smith pensava que a liberdade era o valor mais importante, mas tinha que ser balanceado com outros valores importantes. Embora a liberdade é essencial, Smith estava disposto a restringi-la em poucas instâncias limitadas. Ele presumia que a liberdade era o padrão. A transgressão dela requer evidência convincente e argumentos fortes. Essa “presunção da liberdade” corre por todo o trabalho de Smith e continua a ser uma filosofia política atraente até nos dias de hoje.

Mas o que justifica essa presunção de liberdade? Há três postulados principais. Primeiro, uma crença forte de que os indivíduos irão geralmente buscar seus próprios interesses e melhoramento, como também o de sua família e amigos, com base em sua própria iniciativa. Smith tomou como dado que as pessoas irão buscar melhorar sua própria condição. Segundo, uma crença de que os mercados geralmente produzem uma ordem espontânea próspera. “Sem a assistência e a cooperação de milhares, a pessoa mais mesquinha de um país civilizado não poderia ser provida” com comida, roupas e abrigo básicos. Terceiro, um profundo ceticismo quanto ao conhecimento possuído, e os incentivos enfrentados, por políticos e burocratas.

Deixe-me enfatizar a palavra “geralmente” nas primeiras duas justificativas. O problema em fazer da liberdade um princípio axiomático, que não tenha qualquer exceção, é que ela se torna frágil. Um único contra exemplo sucedido enfraquece toda a posição. Uma grande vantagem em tratar o princípio da liberdade como uma máxima (uma presunção) é que ele deixa espaço para exceções. Nós ainda podemos manter uma posição forte em favor da liberdade sem ter que argumentar que as pessoas sempre fazem escolhas sábias ou que o mercado nunca cria problemas ou efeitos colaterais desagradáveis.

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Smith argumenta que os indivíduos possuem os melhores incentivos e conhecimento para cuidar de si mesmos e daqueles com quem eles se preocupam: “Cada homem, como os estóicos costumavam dizer, é primeira e principalmente confiado a seu próprio cuidado; e cada homem é, certamente em todos os aspectos, mais adequado e mais capacitado a cuidar de si próprio do que de qualquer outra pessoa.” Nós temos simpatia habitual por aqueles que nos estão próximos, seja fisicamente ou relativamente. Embora muitas pessoas são orgulhosas em dizerem que elas desejam o bem de cada homem igualmente, e que nós deveríamos trabalhar ativamente para melhor a vida de todos através do governo, Smith pensa que elas estão mal-orientadas:

“O cuidado pela felicidade universal de todos os seres racionais e sensíveis é a ocupação de Deus, e não dos homens. Para o homem, fica encarregado um negócio muito mais humilde, mas que é muito mais adequado para a fragilidade de seus poderes e para a estreiteza de sua compreensão; o cuidado pela sua própria felicidade, da sua família, de seus amigos e de seu país.”

Pela nossa natureza, somos melhores em cuidar de nós mesmos e daqueles próximos de nós do que em melhorar a vida de todos. A lista de Smith começa com o indivíduo e chega até seu país, e não vice versa. O reconhecimento do interesse natural e da habilidade que os indivíduos têm em cuidar de si favorece uma presunção de liberdade.

A segunda justificativa envolve a apreciação da utilidade, do dinamismo e da robustez do livre mercado. Smith é bem conhecido por sua ideia de uma “mão invisível” que coordena a atividade do mercado. O poder dessa frase vem de sua útil descrição da coordenação do mercado e de sua representação alegórica da beneficência e cooperação engendradas pelo mercado. Mas o próprio Smith usa a “mão invisível” apenas uma vez em A Teoria dos Sentimentos Morais (ocorrendo no centro dos volumes da edição final) e uma vez em A Riqueza das Nações (ocorrendo no centro da primeira edição). Esses usos, em ambos os casos escritos da forma “levado por uma mão invisível”, sendo singulares e no centro em cada trabalho, parecem improváveis de ser uma coincidência ou um acidente – especialmente considerando o quão cuidadosamente Smith escreve. Ele diz ao editor “Sou um lento, um operário muito lento, que faz e desfaz tudo que escrevo pelo menos uma meia dúzia de vezes antes que eu esteja totalmente satisfeito.” Desembrulhar  a importância da colocação e do significado da “mão invisível” exigiria um texto separado. Mas é suficiente notar que a ideia de uma ordem espontânea beneficente surgindo de forma não intencional através das escolhas individuais de troca e produção no livre mercado é uma peça chave do pensamento de Smith.

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A justificação final da presunção de liberdade é um ceticismo profundamente assentado do conhecimento disponível dos políticos e burocratas e dos incentivos que eles enfrentam. Smith era cauteloso em relação tanto aos políticos e à política. Ele descreve como a política gera facção e fanatismo, que por sua vez corrompe o julgamento moral as pessoas:

“Um verdadeiro homem de partido odeia e despreza a sinceridade; e, na realidade, não há qualquer vício que poderia desqualificá-lo de seu negócio de forma tão efetiva do que aquela simples virtude. O real, reverenciado, observador imparcial, não está, por esse motivo, em qualquer ocasião, em uma distância maior do que em meio à raiva e à violência da disputa de partidos.”

Em uma veia similar, Smith caracteriza o “homem de sistema” que, de forma arrogante, tenta impor seu ideal utópico na sociedade:

“O estadista que tentasse orientar pessoas particulares sobre como devem empregar seu capital não somente se sobrecarregaria com uma preocupação altamente desnecessária, mas também assumiria uma autoridade que seguramente não pode ser confiada nem a uma pessoa individual nem mesmo a alguma assembléia ou conselho, e que em lugar algum seria tão perigosa como nas mãos de uma pessoa com insensatez e presunção suficientes para imaginar-se capaz de exercer tal autoridade.”

Políticos não podem ser encarregados de direcionar o capital individual assim como eles mesmos fariam. Como Smith coloca em outra ocasião, o homem de sistema está “apaixonado” por seu “plano ideal”, e “imagina” que pode “arranjar” a sociedade da forma como deseja.

À luz dessas três justificativas, você pode se surpreender sobre como Smith poderia ter defendido qualquer intervenção governamental. Aqui irão alguns pontos para se ter em mente quando se avalia as exceções de Smith à liberdade. Primeiro, Smith reconheceu que a liberdade não era o valor mais importante. Ela deveria ser ponderada com o interesse público, tal como a prevenção de dano massivo pelo fogo, doenças, ou invasão; a extrema utilidade de estradas, canais e portos; ou o bem-estar geral de um público educado.

Segundo, pode haver tensão entre a liberdade direta e a geral. Transgressão da liberdade direta pode, em alguns casos, acabar aumentando indiretamente a liberdade geral. Há muitas sutilezas e nuances quando se pondera essas considerações. Mas algumas poucas áreas onde é mais provável haver alguns desacordos entre a liberdade direta e geral incluem: questões de poluição, defesa militar, e neutralização de algumas formas de coerção privada. O ponto importante não é que há muitos exemplos de que violar a liberdade direta das pessoas aumenta a liberdade geral, mas que há certo espaço para a áreas cinzentas e ambuiguidade a respeito de quais políticas e regras melhor promovem uma sociedade livre.

Finalmente, a presunção de liberdade é uma posição muito pró-liberdade! Ela requer que certo ônus da prova seja satisfeito a fim de justificar intervenções governamentais. Da mesma forma que presumimos alguém ser inocente até que se prove culpado, devemos presumir a liberdade até que argumentação e evidência suficiente sejam apresentados para justificar uma exceção. Assim, embora a presunção da liberdade permite algumas exceções e qualificações, ela geralmente promove uma sociedade livre. Ele não estaria satisfeito com as justificativas da maior parte do Estado regulatório e de bem-estar social. Adotar sua posição sobre a liberdade faria dos EUA uma sociedade muito mais livre e próspera.

Adam Smith’s Presumption of Liberty, de Paul Mueller (traduzido por Guilherme Cintra)

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